the roof of the mouth which is protected by a soft tissue.
the study of the fossil record of human evolution.
the study of past environments.
a relative term used to describe a feature on the anterior portion of the hand; the side with the palm.
the mesial cusp located on the buccal side of the upper molar.
the mesial cusp located on the lingual side of the lower molar.
the evolution of similar morphologies in unrelated species as a result of adapting to similar environment and/or functions.
the evolution of a daughter species from a small portion of individuals along a common border between two populations.
in cladistics, a clade (i.e., group) that consists of a single common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants.
bones forming the sides and the roof of the skull.
a foramen, found in pairs, located laterally on the posterior half of the sagittal suture on either parietal bone.
the idea that the simplest explanation is the most likely. In cladistics, parsimony states that the best representation of a relationship between species is that which depicts the least amount of evolutionary changes from the last common ancestor.
the study of disease and disease processes.
associated with the chest.
pedal distal phalanx 1
tip of the big toe, or hallux.
pedal distal phalanx 2
tip of the second toe.
pedal distal phalanx 3
tip of the middle, or third, toe.
pedal distal phalanx 4
tip of the fourth finger.
pedal distal phalanx 5
tip of the little, or fifth, toe.
pedal intermediate phalanx 2
[syn. pedal middle phalanx 2] middle bone of the second toe.
pedal intermediate phalanx 3
[syn. pedal middle phalanx 3] middle bone of the middle, or third, toe.
pedal intermediate phalanx 4
[syn. pedal middle phalanx 4] middle bone of the fourth toe.
pedal intermediate phalanx 5
[syn. pedal middle phalanx 5] middle bone of the little, or fifth, toe.
pedal proximal phalanx 1
the first bone of the big toe, or hallux, that articulates with the pedal distal phalanx 1 and the first metatarsal.
pedal proximal phalanx 2
the first bone of the second toe that articulates with the pedal intermediate phalanx 2 and the second metatarsal.
pedal proximal phalanx 3
the first bone of the middle, or third, toe that articulates with the pedal intermediate phalanx 3 and the third metatarsal.
pedal proximal phalanx 4
the first bone of the fourth toe that articulates with the pedal intermediate phalanx 4 and the fourth metatarsal.
pedal proximal phalanx 5
the first bone of the little, or fifth, toe that articulates with the pedal intermediate phalanx 5 and the fifth metatarsal.
the border of the pelvic cavity.
infection of the tissues surrounding the teeth.
connective tissue binding the teeth to the alveolus allowing nutrients and nerve supply to the pulp cavity of the tooth.
a sheet of connective tissue that encompasses a bone excluding articular surfaces.
an inflammation of the periosteum.
phalangeal shaft curvature
the observed curve in the shaft of a phalanx (i.e., finger bone).
observable physical properties of an organism resulting from genes and the affects of the environment.
in cladistics, a group that has a common ancestor
see phylogenetic tree or phylogeny.
one of two competing models of evolutionary change that states adaptations occur gradually within a lineage or population. See also punctuated equilibrium.
a hypothetical reconstruction of evolutionary relationships and times between groups.
an evolutionary lineage.
the study of humans and the other primates from a biological and evolutionary perspective.
a small, pea shaped carpal bone that articulates with the triquetral.
a relative term that describes features on the inferior portion of the foot; the sole.
flexion of the foot toward the ground or distally. The foot is plantarflexed when you stand on the tips of your toes.
a primitive trait.
the thumb, or first finger.
a mating relationship involving more than one male but only one female.
a mating relationship involving more than one male and more than female.
refers to the shared common ancestor within a group of species.
a mating relationship involving one male but more than one female.
[adj. polymorphic] many forms.
in cladistics, a clade (i.e., group) that consists of descendants, but not a common ancestor of those descendants; usually depicts convergent evolution.
a single organism or group of organisms of a single living species in a particular geographical area. The organism(s) living within a population are more likely to breed with members of their own population than they are with members of other populations.
the study of how genes change in frequency within populations, often in response to natural selection
the development of a callus at the site of a bone fracture.
the entire repertoire of positions that an animal engages in, including movement or locomotion (i.e., leaping, walking, climbing, brachiation, etc.), and positions at rest or posture (sitting, standing, hanging, feeding, sleeping, etc.).
the bony protuberance found on the side of the orbits on the skull that surrounds and protects the eye; found in most living primates and mammals.
the narrowing bony portion behind the orbits of the skull; produced by a combination of having a large face and a small brain and sometimes large temporalis muscles.
refers to the body below the cranium (i.e., skull and mandible).
a relative term used for bipedal hominins (those that travel on two legs) to describe features that are closer to the back of the body; opposite of anterior. The term dorsal is a synonym commonly used when referring to quadrupedal anatomy.
the time frame after death.
[syn. antemortem] the time frame before death.
in taxonomic classifications, a mammalian order that includes prosimians, monkeys, apes, and humans.
the study of primates.
a trait that is present in the ancestral form.
in anatomical terms, a projection from the bone
modification of the messenger RNA (mRNA) by adding a cap, a tail, and by splicing the RNA molecule through the elimination of the entrons and leaving only the exons; the second part in the process of creating protein from genes.
forward projection of the jaws beyond the rest of the face.
rotary motion that moves the thumb from the lateral to the medial position; the opposite of supination.
the base for most of the body's structure that is made up of amino acids.
the mesial cusp located on the lingual side of the upper molar.
the mesial cusp located on the buccal side of the lower molar.
an elevation or raised deposition on the bone surface.
a relative term used to describe a part of a limb that is closer to the attachment point to the trunk of the body; the opposite of distal.
[plural: pubes] a bone of the os coxa that fuses into the ischium and ilium and forms the ventral and inferior component of the acetabulum.
the soft tissue located in the central cavity of the tooth, allowing blood and nerve supply to the tooth.
one of two competing models of evolutionary change that states a population is generally unchanging but may undergo occasional (short) periods of intense change. See also phyletic gradualism.